# Basic Timer Circuit

Fig. 5.2 shows the block schematic of timer. It consists of three input signals, one output signal and three units: Charging unit, Comparator and Output unit. The charging unit consists of RC circuit as shown in the fig. 5.3. It is associated with trigger input. The trigger input is activated by pressing switch (Push to … Continue reading Basic Timer Circuit

# Characteristics and Performance parameters of Op-amp

Input Bias current: Average of two input bias current flowing through inverting and non-inverting. Input bias current = $latex \displaystyle \frac {|I_{b1}+I_{b2}|}{2} &s=3 &bg=ffffff$ Input bias current depends upon temperature ( Because Base currents of BJT depends upon temperature ). Input offset current: Difference of Non-inverting and inverting bias currents. (i).The input currents of Op-amp are … Continue reading Characteristics and Performance parameters of Op-amp

# Voltage Follower

A circuit in which the output voltage follows the input voltage is called voltage follower circuit. The node B is at potential Vin . Now node A is also at the same potential as B i.e. Vin. VA = VB = Vin Now node A is directly connected to the output. Hence we can write, Vo = VA =  Vin It … Continue reading Voltage Follower

# Ideal Differentiator by using Op-amp

The circuit which produces the differentiation of the input voltage at its output is called differentiator. The differentiator circuit which does not use any active device is called passive differentiator.While the differentiator using an active device like Op-amp is called an active differentiator. The active differentiator circuit can be obtained by exchanging the positions of … Continue reading Ideal Differentiator by using Op-amp

# Ideal Integrator by using Op-amp

In an integrator circuit, the output voltage is the integration of the input voltage. The integrator circuit can be obtained without using active devices like Op-amp, transistors etc. In such a case an integrator is called passive integrator. While an integrator using active devices like Op-amp is called active integrator. The node B is grounded. … Continue reading Ideal Integrator by using Op-amp

# Astable Multivibrator using Op-amp

The astable multivibrator is also called as a free running multivibrator. It has two quasi-stable states i.e. no stable state such. No external signal is required to produce the changes in state. The component values used to decide the time for which circuit remains in each state. Usually, as the astable multivibrator oscillates between two … Continue reading Astable Multivibrator using Op-amp

# Monostable Multivibrators using Op-amp

The monostable multivibrator is also called as the one-shot multivibrator. The circuit produces a single pulse of specified duration in response to each external trigger signal. For such a circuit, only one stable state exists. When an external trigger is applied, the output changes its state. The new state is called as a quasi-stable state. … Continue reading Monostable Multivibrators using Op-amp

# Concept of Lagging and Leading

⇒  1st of all choose your reference phasor ( either voltage V or current I ) Lagging : In Clockwise direction from reference phasor (Negative angle is taken in clockwise direction from the reference). Leading : In anticlockwise direction from reference phasor (Positive angle is taken in anticlockwise direction from the reference phasor). Unity power factor : … Continue reading Concept of Lagging and Leading

# Condition for Zero and Maximum Voltage Regulation

Voltage regulation is given by this approximation $latex \displaystyle V.R. = \biggl( \frac {I_R R cos(\phi_R) \pm I_R X sin (\phi_R)}{V_R} \biggr ) &s=3 &bg=ffffff$ For Zero voltage regulation:  Zero voltage regulation means, Sending end voltage and Receiving end voltage become equal. This case is also known as ideal voltage regulation. \$latex \displaystyle \Rightarrow V.R. = … Continue reading Condition for Zero and Maximum Voltage Regulation

# Classification of Overhead Transmission Line

The parameters R, L and C associated with any transmission line are distributed uniformly along the whole length of line. The series impedance is formed by the resistance and the inductance. In case of single phase circuits capacitance is present between conductors whereas in 3 phase circuits, conductor to neutral forms a shunt path throughout … Continue reading Classification of Overhead Transmission Line